Pirates and Patrons
66 Chamber Music, [1918]


Contents: p. [1], half-title; p. [2], blank; p. [3], title-page; p. [4], blank; pp. [5–40], text, Roman numerals head each poem consecutively, I–XXXVI. Published: 1918; $1; bound in green cloth over boards, 15.8 x 11.2 cm., stamped in gilt on front cover: CHAMBER | MUSIC | JAMES JOYCE ; printed on white laid paper, 15.2 x 10.6 cm. [Slocum & Cahoon A5]

Chamber Music has the dubious distinction of being the first of Joyce’s works to be pirated, though it was certainly not the last. Alfred Bartlett’s Cornhill Company of Boston, Massachusetts was most famous for its Cornhill Booklet, which periodically printed collections of literary excerpts, anecdotes and aphorisms for sale at newsstands. Decoratively printed, Bartlett’s postcard-size Cornhill Broadsides were some of the first collectable “motto cards.” In addition to this pirated edition of Joyce’s first volume of poetry, Cornhill Company issued editions of Wilde, Stevenson, and Thoreau, and as well as publishing Mark Twain’s “English as She is Instructed” in the Cornhill Booklet (1901).

67 Pomes Penyeach, 1931


Contents: p. [1–3], blank; p. [4], copyright notice: Copyright by James Joyce | 1927 ; p. [5], half-title; p. [6], By the Same Author [list of 6 titles]; p. [7], title-page; p. [8], blank; pp. [9–22], text; p. [23], blank; p. [24], colophon: This edition of Pomes Penyeach | is limited to one hundred copies | printed by hand on Georgian | Book paper and numbered one | to one hundred. [number written in ink]; pp. [25–28], blank. Published: Spring 1931; printed by: Alexander H. Buchman and Edwin A. Johnson, Cleveland, Ohio; 100 Numbered copies;  at least 6 unnumbered copies; not intended for sale, approximately 10 copies sold for $1.00; bound in dark brown cloth, 19 cm. x 13.3 cm., stamped in gilt on front cover: POMES PENYEACH | BY | JAMES JOYCE ; printed on white laid paper, 18.3 x 12.7 cm., watermarked: Georgian. [Slocum & Cahoon A26; JJB A.IX.3] 

Alexander Buchman and Edwin Johnson of Cleveland, Ohio were students at Case Western University when they set out to print this edition. Using a Chandler and Price hand operated press, Buchman set the type and Johnson did the printing of this unauthorized edition of Joyce’s second book of poetry. They based the text on the 1927 Shakespeare and Company edition, correcting it according to the errata tipped-in to that first edition. Quite possibly after he and Johnson had already printed the sheets, Buchman wrote to Beach asking her permission to put out an edition of 100 copies in the United States where the text had not been copyrighted. Beach denied his request and immediately issued the Princeton University Press edition (1931). As Buchman later suggested, if it “won the booby prize in having forced, apparently, Miss Beach to rush out hers, we may have accomplished something of passing merit.”33

68 Two Worlds, September 1925 & June 1926

Two Worlds: A Literary Quarterly Devoted to the Increase of the Gaiety of Nations, New York (September 1925–October 1927). “A New Unnamed Work,” (September 1925) Vol. I: No. 1, pp. 45-54; (June 1926) Vol. 1: No. 4, pp. 545-60. [Slocum & Cahoon C65]
 (95K)  (88K)

Samuel Roth’s literary and publishing interest in Joyce’s work began as early as June 1921, when he asked Joyce when Ulysses would appear in book form. But it was not until September 1925 that Roth began to publish Joyce’s most recent work (that would become Finnegans Wake), which had just appeared in the Criterion in July. Initially with simple covers and stark red lettering, the review proclaimed itself Two Worlds: A Literary Quarterly Devoted to the Increase of the Gaiety of Nations and boasted Arthur Symons, Ezra Pound and Ford Madox Hueffer as contributing editors. Roth was always more interested in the allure of his magazine than the substance it contained. The text Roth published was inexcusably corrupt and his disregard for the accuracy of the text persisted, most injuriously with Ulysses. In exactly one year Roth printed four of Joyce’s fragments of Work in Progress in five issues of Two Worlds: September 1925: I.5 (FW 104-25); December 1925:  I.2 section 1 (FW 30-34.29); March and June 1926: I.8 (FW 196-216) and September 1926: I.7 (FW 169-95), Roth paid Joyce at least one hundred dollars for the first two installments.34

69 Two Worlds Monthly: Ulysses, July 1926 & October 1927

Two Worlds Monthly: Devoted to the Increase of the Gaiety of Nations, New York (July 1926–October 1927). “Ulysses,” (July 1926) Vol. 1: no. 1, pp. 93–128; (April 1927) Vol. 3: No. 1, pp. 101–16. [Slocum & Cahoon C68]

With Joyce’s attention focused on his ever-expanding work in progress, from July 1926 to October 1927 Samuel Roth published an unauthorized and bowdlerized version of Ulysses in his new Two Worlds Monthly. Oddly, like The Little Review before it, Roth only managed to reach Oxen of the Sun. On 27 December 1928, the Supreme Court of New York entered a consent decree enjoining Roth from publishing any further work by James Joyce. Nonetheless, flouting both the injunction against him personally and the ban against Ulysses in the United States, Roth first sold bound, two volume sets of the Two Worlds Monthly, and then boldly pirated the 1929 Shakespeare & Company printing. Adding irony to injury, the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice seized copies of Roth’s edition on 5 October 1929. And, worse still, it was Roth’s bowdlerized edition that Bennett Cerf of Random House unwittingly used to set up the first, 1934 American edition of Ulysses; not only did this edition incorporate some of Roth’s errors but added some new ones as well.35
 Ibsen’s New Drama & James Clarence Mangan, 1930
~ Harriet Shaw Weaver Collection

Ibsen’s New Drama | [From The Fortnightly Review LONDON April 1900]. | BY | James A. Joyce | [publisher’s device] | [rule] | ULYSSES BOOKSHOP | 187, High Holborn, London, W.C.1 | [rule]
 (37K)  (48K)

James Clarence Mangan | [From St. Stephen’s, DUBLIN, May, 1902.] | BY | James A. Joyce publisher’s device | [rule] | ULYSSES BOOKSHOP | 187, High Holborn, London, W.C.1 | [rule].

Contents: pp. [i–xi], blank, (pp. [i–ii] pasted down); p. [xii], colophon: 40 copies of this book | have been printed for | Private circulation. | No. [copy] | No copy for sale.; p. [xiii], title-page; p. [xiv], blank; p. [xv], half-title; p. [xvi], blank; pp. 1–[37], text followed by printer’s statement: Printed for The Ulysses Bookshop by H.D.C. Pepler. | 11:3:30 ; pp. [38–48], blank (pp. [47–48] pasted down); 40 numbered copies printed, number of press and out-of-series copies undetermined; no copies for sale; bound in quarter faux-leather black cloth over blue-purple boards, 15 x 11.5 cm., printed on white label pasted to front cover, 3.3 x 6.6 cm.: IBSEN’S NEW DRAMA | JOYCE ; printed on cream-white wove paper, 14.2 x 11.2 cm.


Contents: pp. [i–xi], blank, (pp. [i–ii] pasted down); p. [xii], colophon: 40 copies of this book | have been printed for | Private circulation. | No. [copy] | No copy for sale. ; p. [xiii], title-page; p. [xiv], blank; p. [xv], half-title; p. [xvi], blank; pp. 1–[16], text followed by printer’s statement: 7:3:30 | Printed for The Ulysses Bookshop by H.D.C. Pepler. ; pp. [17–24], blank (pp. [23–24] pasted down); 40 numbered copies printed, number of press and out-of-series copies undetermined, no copies for sale; bound in quarter faux-leather black cloth over blue-purple boards, 15 x 11.5 cm.; printed on white label pasted to front cover, 3.3 x 6.6 cm.: JAMES CLARENCE MANGAN | JOYCE ; printed on cream-white wove paper, 14.4 x 11.3 cm.

In December 1930, Joyce and Beach were once again caught off-guard by another pirate. Negotiations with James Wells, publisher of ALP, were well underway to publish Joyce’s early essays, “The Day of the Rabblement” and “Ibsen’s New Drama.” In fact, Wells had set up the text and bought the paper for what was supposed to be another deluxe edition, when Joyce and Beach were given some disturbing news. Jacob Schwartz’s Ulysses Bookshop in London had published unauthorized editions of the essays under dubious circumstances. Schwartz turned to the St. Dominic’s Press to print his pirated editions. Hilary Douglas Clerk Pepler (1878–51) founded the press in 1916. He was a close friend, fellow artisan, and collaborator of Eric Gill, the well-known writer, sculptor, engraver and typographer whose famous engraving of the Bow illustrates the 1936 Bodley Head, the first English edition of Ulysses. Pepler, who ran the St. Dominic’s Press until 1937, also printed the works of George Bernard Shaw, John Drinkwater, Augustus John, G.K. Chesterton and other writers variously associated with Joyce.

72 A Letter of Protest Against the Pirated American Edition
of Ulysses, 1927

Paris, 2nd February 1927. | text [one paragraph protest statement against Samuel Roth’s unauthorized publication of Ulysses in Two Worlds Monthly] | [167 signatures, some followed by titles or pseudonyms, printed in three columns]. Broadside: one sheet cream-white wove paper, 34.6 x 21.1 cm., printed in black; verso blank.

With Joyce’s urging, Archibald MacLeish and Ludwig Lewisohn wrote and circulated “An International Letter of Protest” against Roth’s pirated edition of Ulysses. Eventually they secured 167 signatures both from friends as well as sometime adversaries, all prominent writers, artists, critics, professors, scientists and philosophers, including Albert Einstein, W. Somerset Maugham, Luigi Pirandello, and Miguel de Unamuno. Beach mailed copies of this protest against the Roth piracy to the signators and various press agencies along with copies of Joyce’s calling card on which he wrote, “with the compliments of.” The records of this joint effort by Beach and Joyce to garner support for this protest are part of Beach’s Shakespeare and Company Collection at Firestone Library, Princeton University. Beach also produced a French translation of this protest in the same format. The English protest was also reprinted in The Humanist and in transition. In spite of their efforts, ten more months passed before Roth quit issuing Ulysses.

73 Our Exagmination Round His Factification for Incamination of
Work in Progress
, 1929 ~ Cyril Connolly Library

OUR EXAGMINATION | ROUND HIS FACTIFICATION | FOR INCAMINATION | OF WORK IN PROGRESS | BY | Samuel Beckett, Marcel Brion, Frank Budgen, | Stuart Gilbert, Eugene Jolas, Victor Llona, | Robert McAlmon, Thomas McGreevy, | Elliot Paul, John Rodker, Robert Sage, | William Carlos Williams. | with | LETTERS OF PROTEST | BY | G. V. L. SLINGSBY AND VLADIMIR DIXON. | SHAKESPEARE AND COMPANY | SYLVIA BEACH | 12, RUE DE L’ODÉON – PARIS | [rule] | M CM XX IX. 194 pp.

This is copy number 66 of 96 copies of Beach’s last Joyce-related publication. It is signed and inscribed by the publisher on title-page: “For Cyril | with love | from Shakespeare who was only | Lord Derby and Company | Sylvia Oct 26 1960.” Samuel Beckett signed and inscribed his contributing essay: “For | Cyril Connolly | very cordially | Sam Beckett | Paris 1960.” Joyce had suggested the topic and title, “Dante… Bruno. Vico.. Joyce” to his young friend, and after reading the completed piece, complained only that Beckett had not given sufficient attention to Bruno. Beach’s contribution to the edition was the cover design: “a circle formed by the names of the contributors turning the subject ‘round his factification.’”36  The volume gathered together twelve studies of Joyce’s “Work in Progress” fragments by prominent members of the Joyce circle, most of which had already appeared in transition.

74 Samuel Beckett, Murphy, 1938 ~ Richard Ellmann Library

Murphy. London: Routledge, 1938. News clipping photograph pasted to inside front cover and holograph limerick by Joyce pasted to front free endpaper.

Beckett’s difficulty in finding a publisher for Murphy rivaled Joyce’s difficulty with Dubliners. Beckett clipped the photograph of the chess-playing chimpanzees from London’s Daily Sketch, 1 July 1936.  Before he had signed a contract with the novel’s ultimate publisher, Routledge, Beckett sent this Daily Sketch clipping to his agent, presumably with the intention of reproducing it in some manner in Murphy. Never incorporated into the first edition, Beckett pasted it here, inside the front cover and opposite a limerick Joyce wrote for him as a sign of his appreciation of the work. Thomas McGreevy had introduced the young Beckett to Joyce in Paris in 1928 and the two remained close. Beckett described his early and characteristic interactions with Joyce: “There wasn’t a lot of conversation between us. I was a young man, very devoted to him, and he liked me. […] I was very flattered when he dropped the ‘Mister.’ Everybody was ‘Mister.’ There were no Christian names, no first names. The nearest you would get to a friendly name was to drop the ‘Mister.’ I was never Sam. I was always ‘Beckett’ at best.”37 Beckett signed and inscribed this copy of Murphy to Richard Ellmann.

75 Final Page Proofs of Finnegans Wake, 7 July 1938–16 January 1939
~ Paul and Lucie Léon Collection

The manuscript consists of the first 30 signatures of the first, second and third settings of page proofs for the first edition of Finnegans Wake (Faber & Faber). The recto of the first leaf of each gathering of the signature is marked “J.W.P” (for “Joyce’s Work in Progress,” as neither the publisher nor the printers were notified of the book’s actual title until 22 December 1938) in the lower left margin. The printer’s stamp appears in the lower right margins of those same pages: “FROM | Robert MacLehose & Co. Ld | [date] | University Press | Anniesland. Glasgow.” The paper is slicker and of lesser quality than that used for the Faber & Faber trade issue of Finnegans Wake, the measurements of the manuscript range from approximately 23.2 x 14.6 to 24.6 x 15.7 cm.

1a) A copy of the first setting of page proofs of pp. [001]–355, signatures A–I, K–U and X–Z,38 dated 7 July–8 October 1938. This copy is heavily corrected and revised with numerous additions, in green and black inks, a relatively small portion of which are in Joyce’s hand; most of the instructions are in the hands of several amanuenses, including Paul Léon and George Joyce. There are also printers’ marks in pencil and red crayon on many pages and the rectos of some first pages of signatures are additionally stamped “REVISE” in the margins in purple ink; and 1b) a duplicate copy of the first setting of page proofs of pp. [001]–355, unmarked.

2a) A copy of the second setting of pp. [001]–272, signatures A–I and K–R, dated 20 November–9 December 1938. This copy is unmarked, except for p. 003 and 260–72 (see textual collation below); and 2b–d) three duplicate copies of page proofs of pp. 257–72, all unmarked.

3a) A copy of the second setting of pp. 273–355, signatures S–U and X–Z,39 which are undated but were most likely set in early December 1938, of which only pages 273–308, 312 and 353 are revised and heavily corrected, including instructions regarding leading and kerning of marginalia and footnotes (see textual collation below), in red and black inks, with printers’ notes and markings on most pages in pencil and orange crayon; 3b–d) three duplicate copies of page proofs of pp. 273–320, signatures S–U, undated, unmarked; 3e) one duplicate copy of page proofs of pp. 321–52, signatures X–Y, undated, unmarked; and 3f–h) three duplicate copies of page proofs of pp. 253–55, partial signature Z, undated, unmarked.

4) A single copy of the first setting of pp. 353–496, signatures Z, 2A–2E and 2H,40 dated 4–16 January 1939, some of the first sheets of signatures additionally stamped “REVISE” in black ink, all unmarked.

5a) A copy of the first setting of pp. 497–512, signature 2I, dated 16 January 1939, corrected and revised in green ink in several hands; 5b) a duplicate copy of pp. 497–512, with most of the emendations repeated from the first copy, plus further overlay, primarily in Paul Léon’s hand, in green ink, except for pp. 502 and 508 that are revised in black ink, marked “RUSH” (presumably by the printers) in red crayon on p. 497; and 5c) a further duplicate copy of pp. 497–512, unmarked, except for p. 512, which contains one addition in green ink that is also present on 5a & b).

6) A third setting of pp. 305–20, signature U, dated 14 January 1939, marked “RUSH” in blue crayon, with further instructions regarding leading and kerning of marginalia and footnotes, only on pp. 305–07.

7) Two notes to the printer (one holograph attached to p. 282, probably in Paul Léon’s hand, and another in typescript) both concerning the accurate leading and kerning of marginalia and footnotes in II.2.

None of these manuscripts were reproduced in the James Joyce Archive. No other duplicate copies of page proofs of Book I, Book II.3, II.4, Book III nor Book IV are known to be extant. In the Weaver Joyce Collection at the British Library there is a duplicate copy of the first setting of page proofs of Book II.1 (BL 47477, fs. 299–319), with similar but not identical corrections and revisions, in Joyce’s hand. Also at the British Library (47477, fs. 319v–325v), there is a partial, unmarked copy of the first setting of page proofs for Book II.2. Page proofs were set for the remainder of Finnegans Wake and, although they are not known to be extant, there are notes as well as a typescript copy of corrections keyed to the first setting of Book III and IV at the British Library (47478, fs. 232–38, 271 and 47488, fs. 238–40).

Textual Collation:  On the first setting of page proofs the majority of emendations are grammatical and syntactical corrections, primarily the addition or deletion of commas, dashes, hyphens, periods, semi-colons and the altering of capitalization. Nonetheless, some of the revisions are crucial to the text of Finnegans Wake as published. Here we will focus on just one related group of examples, the “thunderwords.” It was only in 1935, nine years after he had written the first thunderword to open “Work in Progress” in transition 1, that Joyce settled on the plan that the (by then 6) thunderwords were to be exactly 100 letters long, but it was not until these final page proofs that he achieved his plan.41 Like the first thunderword that repeated “thunder” many times over, the second one, which closes the Prankquen scene (FW 023.05–07), echoes thunder but also functions as a series of leitmotifs on the themes in the tale of Grace O’Malley. In green ink Joyce added “Perkodhuskurunbarggruauya” to the start of the thunderword and so it was only at this late stage that Joyce added the first 25 letters that brings the total to 100. Not only does this addition carry over words for thunder from the first clap, but Joyce inserted the crucial initial allusions to the P/Q spilt, goddesses, ships, the riddle at the castle door and her Celtic name “Graunya” in this thunderword. The third thunderclap that announces HCE (FW 044.21–23) had been a mere 83 letters from the time Joyce revised it for transition 2 in April 1927 until August 1938. Now Joyce (again in green ink) altered and added “thappluddyappladdypkonpkot!” to the end of this thunderword. This 17-letter addition, like the one discussed above, was primarily intended to bring the number of letters up to 100, rather than add any new thematic content. It repeats some of the basic themes of the book and the thunderwords specifically: thunder, applause and the fall. Joyce’s obviously concentrated effort to make nine of the ten thunderwords conform to 100 letters is also evident in the calculations that appear in the margin beside the next, the fourth thunderword  (FW 090.31-33). It is a three-lined clap next to which someone counted the letters: “17 [+] 56 [+] 27 [=] 100.”

The marginal commentary in II.2 caused a fair deal of problems for the printers as well. There were already complications with the text on the galleys. Here the left-side marginalia is boxed in the text; i.e., when there is no marginal text, the central text is left justified. All of the added text was incorporated with remarkably few printers’ errors, but as usual Joyce made his other rounds of additions and revisions all over the margins of almost all the galley pages. A second (unrevised) copy of the first set of galleys was properly printed with the text centered, completely separated from the left marginalia. Joyce did not make another round of additions on this set, but had an amanuensis, probably Paul Léon, provide instructions for the correct placement of the left marginalia to the printers, which usually consisted in moving text up or down a few lines. The printers’ problems with setting the text (and Joyce’s problems with the printers) did not end with the galleys because on the page proofs the left and right marginalia inadvertently switched sides on the even numbered pages: what should be the capitalized “right-side” marginalia was on the left-side and the what should be the italicized “left-side” marginalia was set on the right. This problem was quickly solved, but the numerous instructions on these page proofs confirm that Joyce had very exact requirements concerning the placement of the marginalia beside specific text. Nor were these the printers’ only problems. Naturally, because of the odd format of the text in this episode, each new addition had consequences for the placement of the footnotes. Finally, another set of page proofs was printed and these final typographical problems were resolved.

The most notable emendation on the second setting of proofs is the instruction on p. 003 to make a new paragraph begin at “Sir Tristram, […].”

On 13 November 1938, Joyce announced to Weaver that he had finished with “Work in Progress.” Actually, the work was far from over. He worked frantically to have the book published first on his father’s birthday, 4 July 1938, but when it was clear that that would be impossible, then by his own birthday, 2 February 1939, though that too, passed by. Just as with Ulysses, Joyce was still writing parts of what became Finnegans Wake as the printers were setting the text of his still unnamed work. And, as usual, as Faber & Faber’s Scottish printers returned set after set of proofs to him, Joyce continued to make corrections and revisions. To help him with all this work, he enlisted the aide of his family and friends and most of the corrections of these proof pages are in fact not in Joyce’s hand, but predominantly in Paul Léon’s, George Joyce’s, Stuart Gilbert’s and Eugene Jolas’s. In the midst of correcting the second setting of the proofs, in mid-December, Joyce collapsed in the Bois de Bologne from the strain of the work, but he persisted. The corrections to the book continued after its publication, Joyce and Léon compiled an errata list to Finnegans Wake that Maria Jolas delivered to B. W. Huebsch in New York in September 1940.

76 Finnegans Wake, 1939  ~ Paul and Lucie Léon Collection

FINNEGANS | WAKE | by | James Joyce | London | Faber and Faber Limited

Contents: pp. [i-ii], blank; p. [iii], colophon: This signed edition is limited to | four hundred and twenty-five numbered copies | of which one hundred and twenty-five copies | are for sale in Great Britain | and three hundred copies | in the United States of America | This copy is number [number written in ink]; p. [iv], blank; p. [v], half-title; p. [vi], blank; p. [vii], title-page; p. [viii], printer’s statement: Printed in Great Britain | by R. MacLehose & Company Limited | The University Press Glasgow ; p. [1], divisional title: I; p. [2], blank; pp. [3]–216, text; p. [217], divisional title: II; p. [218], blank; pp. 219–399, text; p. [400], blank; p. [401], divisional title: III; p. [402], blank; pp. 403–590, text; p. [591], divisional title: IV; p. [592], blank; pp. 593–628, text.  Published: 4 May, 1939; £ 5 5s, $25; bound in red buckram, 26.3 x 17.7 cm., stamped in two panels in gilt on spine: [triple rule] | FINNEGANS | WAKE | [triple rule] | JAMES JOYCE | [triple rule] | [triple rule] | MCMXXX1X  [triple rule]; printed on cream-white wove paper, head trimmed and gilt, fore-edge and tail untrimmed, unopened, 25 x 15.7cm. Issued in yellow cloth slipcase. 

Finnegans Wake was finally published in May 1939 by Faber & Faber in London and simultaneously by Viking in New York. This copy is one of 425 numbered copies of the deluxe first edition. The number of this copy has been erased and Joyce signed and inscribed it on the day of publication in the blue-green ink he used to sign all copies of this limitation: “To | that Eurasian Knight, | Paul Léon, | with the thousand and | one thanks of that most  | distressful writer | James Joyce | Paris | 4 May 1939.”

77 Porcelain Lion ~ Paul and Lucie Léon Collection

Ceramic figurine manufactured by B & G RJABENHAVEN with the label of Rouard, [Paris], approximately 19.7 x 8 x 14 cm.

Although Joyce never visited Norway, the home of his favorite playwright Henrik Ibsen, he and Nora traveled to Copenhagen, Denmark in August 1936 in part, to satisfy Joyce’s curiosity about H.C. Earwicker’s Scandinavian background. A Swedish translation of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man had appeared as early as 1921, and by the 1940s Joyce’s works had been translated into Danish, Norwegian and Finnish. Lucie Léon mentions this lion, along with a blue-and-white striped tie, as one of the many jocular gifts Joyce sent Léon over the years.

78 Photograph of Paul Léon and Joyce, [n. d.]
~ Paul and Lucie Léon Collection
79 Photograph of Paul Léon [n. d.]
~ Paul and Lucie Léon Collection
80 Lucie Noel, James Joyce and Paul Léon, 1950
~ Richard Ellmann Library


Lucie Noel described her husband as “Joyce’s alter ego and guardian in the practical details of everyday life,” a role Léon gradually took on over the course of their twelve-year friendship. In this tribute to both men, Noel took pains to draw out an image of Paul Léon that went beyond his roles as Joyce’s “paid secretary,” his “lawyer,” “manager” or “agent,” all titles Léon resented. Nonetheless, she admitted, “Paul was there to handle every situation, to smooth over all sorts of misunderstandings, to protect Joyce from gate-crashers and intruders.” Paul and Lucie’s guardianship of the author’s work and interests persisted after Joyce’s death. As Noel recalls, the contents of the Joyce’s flat at Rue des Vignes were auctioned off on 7 March 1941. With financial assistance from Noel’s brother, Alexis Ponisovsky, the Léons were able to buy back almost all of Joyce’s first editions, personal library and manuscripts and protected them from confiscation during the German occupation of Paris. Noel recalls her interaction with Gestapo officers who were hunting for the valuable first editions of the writer for whom her husband, they claimed, had “worked.” After Paul Léon’s death in 1942, Lucie Noel continued to collect Joyce material, adding to the collection that honored their friendship.

81 Postcard from Joyce to the Léons, 1935
~ Paul and Lucie Léon Collection
James and Nora Joyce, Herbert and Claire Gorman to Paul and Lucie Léon, 10 August 1935 (postmark). APCS with pencil sketch of a lion.
82 Verve, 1938

Verve: An Artistic and Literary Quarterly, Paris (December 1937-60).
“A Phoenix Park Nocturne,” (March-June 1938) Vol. 1: No. 2. p. 26. [Slocum & Cahoon C93].

Verve was the independent enterprise of Greek émigré, publisher and art aficionado E. Tériade who issued this eclectic and richly illustrated magazine irregularly from 1937–60. In its first number, which featured a cover by Henri Matisse and works by Gide, Dos Passos, Bataille and Miro, Tériade declared his mission: “Verve proposes to present art as intimately mingled with the life of each period and to furnish testimony of the participation by artists in the essential events of their time. It is devoted to artistic creation in all fields and in all forms. […] The value of its elements will depend on their character, the selection of them that has been made and the significance they assume through their disposition in the magazine.” Verve created a remarkable and vibrant image of artistic community by juxtaposing, for example, medieval illuminations of Petrarch’s “Triumphs” and the oil paintings and engraving of Watteau with the letters of Cezanne to Zola and the cut-outs of Matisse. Joyce contributed a passage to the second number of Verve, that he dubbed “A Phoenix Park Nocturne” and which became the opening of Finnegans Wake II.1 (244–46). Here, a fragment from Joyce’s “Work in Progress” joins the texts, paintings, illuminations, lithographs and photographs that come together around human, astronomical and spiritual cycles. The cover of the issue is the work of Georges Braque and it included Hemingway’s “The Heat and the Cold,” Bataille’s “Heavenly Bodies,” Bosch’s “The Conjuror,” early illuminations of the “Apocalypses,” and a fourteenth century manuscript of “The Twelve Mansions of Heaven.”


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